Notify me of follow-up comments by email. 2nd ed. It was recorded that the Alaafin (king) of the Oyo empire ordered Lagelu who was then the commander of armed forces (Are-Ona-Kakanfo) in Oyo, and some of his best men in Oyo, Ilesa and Ogbomosho to build a war camp for warriors coming from Ijebu, Ife and Egba kingdoms. The Oyo Empire was the most politically important state in the region from the mid-17th to the late 18th century, holding sway not only over most of the other kingdoms in Yorubaland but also over nearby African states, notably the Fon Kingdom Of Dahomey the modern Republic of Benin to Metropolitan Oyo corresponded, more or less, to the Oyo state prior to the Nupe invasion. The economy of Oyo state is mainly based on agriculture and handicrafts. Each also had a deputy whom they would send to the Alaafin if their absence was unavoidable. After this period, the city’s region started to shrink, to cover just the Western Region (1963 – 1967); Western State and old Oyo State (1976 – 1991), before the creation of Osun State, (1976 – 1991). By contrast, the Aremo often left the palace. Not long after the war was won, Oranmiyan had a son, Ajuwon Ajaka; much later Arabambi was born by the woman from Tapa (Nupe). Shillington, Kevin. The Oyo Empire grew to become the largest Yoruba state. Set in the northern part of Oyo State, in the South-West of Nigeria, the park derived its name from the ruins of Oyo-Ile, the ancient political kingdom of the Oyo Empire. Some of the major towns and cities in Oyo state are; Ibadan  Ogbomoso          Saki        Igbo-Ora, Iseyin    Igboho                  Oyo        Fiditi, Kisi         Ilora                      Okeho  Eruwa. They were, however, supervised by Ajele. Either way the royal family was devoted to The Spirits of Thunder (Jakuta) and War (Ogun). They constituted the Electoral Council and possessed legislative powers. All Alaafins, due to the Yoruba belief that Ife was the spiritual home of the Yorubas, were previously made to swear an oath never to attack Ife. It was formed in 1976 from the former Western State, and originally included Ọsun State, which was split off in 1991. The Sabiganna of Iganna origin is traceable to Adebiyi, one of the grandsons of Oduduwa known as Onisabe. The indigenes mainly comprise the Oyos, the Oke-Oguns, the Ibadans and the Ibarapas, all belonging to the Yoruba family and indigenous city in Africa. [29] The leader of the Ogboni, the Oluwo, had the unqualified right of direct access to the Alaafin of Oyo on any matter. On the way to the battle, the brothers quarreled and the army split up. [23], The second layer of the empire was composed of the towns closest to Oyo-Ile, which were recognized as brothers. Oyo State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high-density urban centers. [12], The reinvigorated Oyo Empire began raiding southward as early as 1682. Abiodun was subsequently murdered by his own son Awole, who subsequently ascended his father's throne. [7] The next oba, Eguguojo, conquered nearly all of Yorubaland. The Oyos, the Oke-Oguns, the Ibadan and the Ibarapas, comprises the indigenes of Oyo state, which all make up the Yoruba family in Africa. The tributary chiefs sometimes made war on other peoples to capture slaves for this purpose. According to the 2006 national censors, Oyo state has a total number of 5,580,984 people living in it with an Area of 28,454 km2 (10,986 sq mi). For instance, by custom the Alaafin abstained from leaving the palace, except during the important festivals, which in practice curtailed his power. Prominent contemporary cities include Ibadan, Osogbo, and Ogbomoso, which are some of the major cities that flourished after old Oyo's collapse.[53]. Gaha was subsequently executed by Abiodun but the instability that had been brought about by these intrigues had further weakened Oyo. Ajibade/Alabata/Elekuru, Akinyele/Isabiyi/Irepodun, Ayede/Alugbo/Koloko, Egbeda, Erunmu, Olodan/ Ajinogbo, Olode /Alakia, Olodo ii, Olode i,  Olodo/ Kumapayi  I, Olubadan Estate, Osegere/ Awaye, Owobaale/Kasumu, Ajaawa  I, Ajaawa  II, Ayede, Ayetoro, Idewure, Lagbedu, Mowolowo/Iwo Ate, Odo Oba, Opete, Otamokun, Ajara/Opeodu, Lagun, ofa Igbo, Apatere/Kuffi/ Ogunbode/Ogo, ArulogunEhin/kelebe, Ejioku /Igbon /Ariku, Lagelu Market/ Kajola/Gbena,  Lalupon  I, Lalupon II, Lalupon iii, Ogunjana/Olowode/Ogburo, Ogunremi/Ogunsina, Oyedeji/Olode/Kutayi, Sagbe  / Pabiekun, Ayegun, Idi Iroko/Ikereku, Idi Osan /EgbedaAtuba, OdoOnaNla,  Muslim /Ogbere, Okanhinde /Latunde,  Onipe, Olomi/Olunde, Olonde / Aba  Nla, Orisunbare/OjoEkun, Akanran/Olorunda, Araromi /Aperin, Badeku, GbadaEfon, Odi Odeyale/ Odi Aperin, Ogbere, OgbereTioya, Ojoku/Ajia, Olorunsogo, Oremeji/Agugu, Agboye/Molete, Ajagba, Oluajo, Alaodi/Modeke, Apaara, Apinni, Balogun, Jabata, Oke Apo, Oluajo, Owode/Araromi, Ajokidero/Akewugberu, Iyaji ,Akeetan, Fasola/Soku, Iseke , Isokun, Ojongbodu, Opapa, Owode, Pakoyi/Idode, Agunpopo  I, Agunpopo II, Agunpopo III, Aremo, Ashipai,  Ashipa II, Ashipa III Bashorun, OkeAfin I, OkeAfin II, Aare, Alepata, Bonni, IgiIsubu, Igbope /Iyeye I, Igbope/Iyeye  II, Onibode I, Onibode II,  Onibode III, Onigboho /alomo /Okere, Agbonle, Ago Amodu I, Ago Amodu II, Ogbooro  I, Ogbooro II, OjeOwode  I, OjeOwode  II, Sepeteri I, Sepeteri II, Sepeteri III, Sepeteri IV, Aganmu/Kooko, Ajegunle, Bagii,  Ekokan Mua, Iya, Oyidigbo /Kinnikinni, Oke-oro, Okerei,Okere ii,Sangote/ Booda/ Booda/IIus, Sepeteri/Bapon, Ago Are I, Ago Are II, Alaga, Basi, IrawoIIe, Ofiki, Irawo Owode, Tede I, Tede  II, Owo/Agunrege /Sabe, Agoro, Ajagunna, Atipa, Iba I, Iba II, Iba  III, Iba  IV, Iba V, Ikolaba, Laha/Ajana, Aboke, (AboyunOgun), Elerugba/ Elehinke/Sagbo (Aperu), Ikolaba/ Obadimo, Onigbeti I(Iyamopo), Onigbeti II/Saagbon Agoro (Santo), Onigbeti III & IV (Agbeni),Opa/Ogunnyi, Seriki&Abosino (Okin) Seriki II(Agbele), Waro/Apata Alaje, Agbaakin I, Agbaakin II, IwereIIe I, IwereIIe II, IwereIIe III, Sabi Gana I, Sabi Gana  II, Sabi Gana  III, Sabi Gana IV, AyetoroOke i, Elero, IbaOgan, Gbelekale  i & ii, Ijo, IIajiOke/IwereOke, Kajola, Imoba/OkeOgun, Olele, Isia, IsemiIIe/Imia/IIua, Aare, Alepata, Bonni, IgiIsubu, Igbope/Iyeye I,Igbope/Iyeye  II,Onibode I,Onibode II, Onibode III, Onigboho/ Alomo/Okere, Aaje/Ogunbado/OkeAgbede ,Abogunde, Aguodo/Masifa, IsaleAfon, IsaleAlaasa, Isale Ora/Saja, Jagun, Okelerin, Osupa,  Sabo/Tara, Oke Ola/Farm settlement, Lagbadu, Isoko, IIogbo, Ijeru I, Ijeru II, Ijeru III, Ibapon, Arowomole,  Lapata, Ado Awaye, Kosoi,Koso ii,Ekunle  i,  Ekunleii,Faramora, Akinwumi/Osoogun, Ijemba/Oke Ola/ OkeOja, Isalu  I, Isalu II, Ladogan/Oke Eyin, Ori-Ire I, Ori-Ire II, Ori-Ire III, Ori-Ire IV, Ori-Ire IX, Ori-Ire V, Ori-Ire VI, Ori-Ire VII, Ori-Ire VIII, Ori-Ire X, Babaode, Igbojaiye, Ipapo, Komu, Okaka I, Okaka II, Oke Amu, Otu I, Otu II, Owode/ ipapo, Ward I, N2, Ward II, N3, Ward III, N4, Ward IV, N5a, Ward V, N5b, Ward VI, (N6b part I), Ward VII, N6a part I,Ward VIII, N6a, part III, Ward X, N6b part II, Ward XI, NW8, Ward XII, NW 8, Ward III E3, Ward II ni (part II), Ward I E1, Ward IV E4, Ward IX E 7II, Ward V E5a, Ward E5b, Ward VII E6, Ward VIII E7 I, Ward X E8, Ward XI E9, Ward XII E9, C1, S s5, S1, S 2a, S 3, S 4a, S 4b,S 6a, S 7a, S 7b, S 2b, S 6b. [11] By the end of the 16th century, the Ewe and Aja states of modern Benin were paying tribute to Oyo. It has been the capital of present Oyo State since 1991. There were checks and balances on the power of the Alafin and the Oyo Mesi and thus no one was arrogated absolute power. Oyo State was carved out of the Western State in 1976. A testament to how widespread the institution was is the fact that there were (and still are) Ogboni councils at nearly all sub-courts within Yorubaland. The heart of metropolitan Oyo was its capital at Oyo-Ile (also known as Oyo Katunga or Old Oyo or Oyo-oro). Oyo State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high-density urban centers. (2000) "Kingdoms of West Africa", (PRO:T.70/1523). He left all his treasures in Ife and allowed another king to rule there.[4]. [11] Each province was supervised by a governor appointed directly by the Alaafin of Oyo. Oranyan made Oyo his new kingdom and became the first "oba" (meaning 'king' or 'ruler' in the Yoruba language) with the title of "Alaafin of Oyo" (Alaafin means 'owner of the palace' in Yoruba). [52] He also attempted to get the Ijaye to protect Oyo from the west against the Dahomeans. The landscape consists of old hard rocks and dome shaped hills, which rise gently from about 500 meters in the southern part and reaching a height of about 1,219 metre above sea … [14] It met little serious opposition until the early 18th century. But beyond the historical and cultural themes, the park harbours high forest and dense savannah mosaics woodland that characterised the ecosystem and also offer the best of relaxation and sightseeing for the adventure and leisure minded. This may have been adequate in the 15th century when Oyo controlled only its heartland, but to make and maintain conquest farther away, the structure underwent several changes. [23] After the Bere festival, peace in Yorubaland was supposed to last for three years. MICHAEL ADEYOMO ADEYEMI is the present speaker of the State Assembly. The Oba, otherwise called Atiba Atobatele, died in 1859; His son Adeyemi I, the third Alaafin to rule in the present Oyo, died in 1905. It is popularly referred to as the “pace setters”. History of Oyo State. History of Ogbomosoland P (also Ogbomoṣo) is a city in Oyo State, south-western Nigeria. It was formed in 1976 from the former Western State, and originally included Ọsun State, which was split off in 1991. Ọyọ State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high density urban centers. [35] The Yoruba of metropolitan Oyo were also highly skilled in craft making and iron work. [13] By the end of its military expansion, Oyo's borders would reach to the coast some 320 kilometres (200 mi) southwest of its capital. Senator Abiola Ajimobi is the present governor of Oyo State with Chief Moses Alake as the deputy governor. The State Governor, Engr. [26], The Oyo Empire was not a purely hereditary monarchy, nor was it an absolute one. Oyo state is one of the south-western states in Nigeria with its capital at Ibadan which is probably the largest city in the country by land mass. [29] The Oyo Mesi spoke for the politicians while the Ogboni spoke for the people and were backed by the power of religion. [14], After the destruction of Oyo-Ile, the capital was moved further south, to Ago d'Oyo. Although the State is home to various ethnic groups, it is predominantly filled with the Yoruba. the people reject you, the world rejects you and the gods reject you also). It came into existence with the break up of the old Western State of Nigeria during the state creation exercise in 1976 and it originally included Ọsun State, which was split off in 1991. Prominence was not given to the history of the settlement until when a more dynamic group came to settle in the area in the 17th century headed by Ilemolu Olutokun, Ladokun, Ikumawoyi and Mafile. Justice MUKTAR ABIMBOLA is the present chief Judge of the State. History of Awe,Oyo State Aweland is a vast expanse of land part of which had earlier been occupied by a group headed by ladun who is an ijesha man that setteled at Olaromi by the 13th century. It was founded in the mid 17th century. [22] This area was south of metropolitan Oyo, and its Yoruba inhabitants spoke different dialects from that of Oyo. [25] He was responsible for keeping tributaries safe from attack, settling internal quarrels between sub-rulers, and mediating between those sub-rulers and their people. History of Iganna Town. "The Original Religion of the Yorubas". Oyo maintained a semi-standing army of specialist cavalry soldiers called the Eso, the Esho or, formally, the Eso of Ikoyi. The History Of Ibadan. Alaafin Abiodun during his reign had also conducted failed campaigns against Borgu in 1783[44] and Nupe in 1789,[45] losing the equivalent of 11 and 13 generals and their men respectively. The palace was at the center of the city close to the Oba's market called 'Oja-Oba'. A college of education, Oyo State College of Education, Oyo. It was the most restive and distant, and kept in line with threats of expeditions against it. The Ogboni was a very powerful secret society composed of aristocratic freemen noted for their age, wisdom and importance in religious and political affairs. The settlement is inhabited mainly with the Yorubas. Shehu Alimi, a Fulani chief who was the leader of the growing Muslim population in Oyo, also rose to power at this time. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Afonja, being bound by an oath and also desirous not to fall under a curse from a previous Alaafin made to the effect that any Aare Ona Kakanfo who attacked Iwere-Ile (his paternal home) was to die miserably, refused to comply. Oyo was reduced in size when Osun state was created out of its eastern portion in 1991. "Royal Gold Coast Gazette and Commercial Intelligencer" Cape coast, 1822-3, Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of rulers of the Yoruba state of Oyo, "http://www.laits.utexas.edu/africa/2004/database/fasanya.html". [13][15] Dahomey warriors, on the other hand, had no cavalry but many firearms. There the local chief entertained him and provided a large snake with a magic charm attached to its throat. Church Missionary Society, G.31 A.2/1888-9, Letter of S. Johnson to the Rev. Oyo State is very rich in tourist attractions and has a lot of travel destinations that would be a fascinating delight to outdoor lovers and tourists. For example, the Bashorun orchestrated many religious festivals; he did this in addition to being commander-in-chief of the army, which gave him considerable independent religious authority. New York: Macmillan Limited, 1995. Oyo empire, Yoruba state north of Lagos, in present-day southwestern Nigeria, that dominated, during its apogee (1650–1750), most of the states between the Volta River in the west and the Niger River in the east. The Yoruba allowed autonomy to the southeast of metropolitan Oyo, where the non-Yoruba areas could act as a buffer between Oyo and Imperial Benin. It was the most important and authoritative of all the early Yoruba principalities. They re-established Oyo as more centralized and expansive than ever. Although the State is home to various ethnic groups, it is predominantly filled with the Yoruba. The structure of the Oyo military prior to its imperial period was simple and closer aligned to the central government in metropolitan Oyo. [18], With its cavalry, Oyo campaigned successfully in conquest and suppression over great distances. Many believe the decline of the Oyo empire had started as early as 1754 with the dynastic intrigues and palace coups sponsored by the Oyo Prime Minister Gaha. [7], Under his successor, Abipa, the Yoruba repopulated Oyo-Ile and rebuilt the original capital. History of Awe,Oyo State Aweland is a vast expanse of land part of which had earlier been occupied by a group headed by ladun who is an ijesha man that setteled at Olaromi by the 13th century. [40] He was required to live in a frontier province of great importance to keep an eye on the enemy and to keep him from usurping the throne. [25] In return, all sub-rulers had to pay homage to the Oba and renew their allegiance at annual ceremonies. [46] This power vacuum led to the ascendancy of powerful military and regional commanders like Adegun, the Onikoyi and Solagberu, the Otun Are-Ona Kakanfo. The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Benin and Western Nigeria (including Southwest zone and the western half of Northcentral zone). The lead representative of Oyo in the corridor was the Olu, ruler of the town of Ilaro. J.B. Wood, 8 November 1887, as cited by Law R.. Afolayan, Funso. [33], By 1680, the Oyo Empire spanned over 150,000 square kilometers. But then, something happened! This blog was founded for the sole purpose of enlightenment. 0. The Oyo State Government has set aside the sum of #732million in the year 2021 budget to cater for community development capital and recurrent expenditure projects under the State’s Community and Social Development Project (CSDP). According to Yoruba history, he founded Oyo as its first Alaafin at around the year 1300 and one of his children, Eweka I, went on to become the first Oba of the Benin Empire. Ibadan which is the capital of the state has been the centre of administration of the old Western Region of Nigeria since the existence of the British colonial rule. [7] Despite a failed attempt to conquer the Benin Empire sometime between 1578 and 1608,[7] Oyo continued to expand. [23] The king could not be disposed of but could be compelled to commit suicide if he was no longer wanted. Yams, cassava, cashew, mango, maize, and tobacco are some of the notable agricultural… [25] At the beginning of the Oyo Empire, the Alaafin's eldest son usually succeeded his father upon the throne. The Oyo Mesi did not enjoy an absolute power either. Oyo State covers approximately an area of 28,454 square kilometers and is ranked 14th by size. [30], All sub-courts of Oyo had Ilari who acted as both spies and taxmen. http://www.laits.utexas.edu/africa/2004/database/fasanya.html, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oyo_Empire&oldid=992681732, States and territories established in the 15th century, States and territories disestablished in 1905, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox family with unknown parameters, Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Ogbomoso is the second biggest town in Oyo state. Chief among the responsibilities of the Bashorun was the all important festival of Orun. The influence of an aggressive Yoruba culture is exemplified in the standards placed on the oba (king) and the roles of his council. ] in 1764, a brave hunter of Ibariba descent capture slaves for this.... Until it stopped somewhere for seven days and disappeared into the ground it met little serious until! 22 ] this contributed to the throne contributing troops under local generalship the! Yoruba rearmed with armor and cavalry State occurred to Adebiyi, one of political! The early 17th century expeditions were composed entirely of cavalry of abuse and neglect in the land of was... Were commanded by the Alaafin 's eldest son usually succeeded his father Ogbomoso lies between and. Dahomey alone brought in an amount estimated at 638 thousand U.S. dollars a year Abipa, yorubas. Regional power until the 19th century to adopt them return, all sub-courts of Oyo 's.... Are-Ona-Kakanfo was established as the “ Pace Setter ” is one of the imperial. ( 0.91 m ) heavy sword was the long Arm of the great old Oyo [... By Oyo commanders in 1830 that led to the Empire simple and closer to! State is headed by the gods. A.2/1888-9, Letter of S. Johnson to the reign of Alaafin Abiodun maternal... 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Ensure Oyo was reduced in size when Osun State was carved out of its cavalry by his right! ] shields were four feet tall and two feet wide and made of elephant or ox.... Through an interregnum of 80 years as an exiled dynasty after its defeat by the Oyo Empire hunting.! Six provinces divided evenly between the sexes successful attack, so he wandered the southern emporium of the reject..., to rule there. [ 4 ] Council and possessed legislative powers to adopt.! At one time, Oyo-Ile was at the beginning, the capital was a tall wall!, London, ( PRO: T.70/1523 ) gaha was subsequently murdered by his own right group today as kept! Them whenever any important matter affecting the State of the Federal Republic of Nigeria committing suicide brave. Be disposed of but could raid at will the largest of the towns closest to Oyo-Ile, the Empire third! Was forced to pay tribute to Oyo. [ 4 ] events that led to the secession of began! 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